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The state of the international organ trade: According to WHO, kidney transplants are carried out in 91 countries. Around 66 kidney transplants, 21 liver transplants and heart transplants were performed globally in The access of patients to organ transplantation, however, varies according to their national situations, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, the level of technical capacity and, most importantly, the availability of organs.
The shortage of organs is virtually a universal problem. In some countries, the development of a deceased organ donation programme is hampered by sociocultural, legal and other factors. Even in developed countries, where rates of deceased organ donation tend to be higher than in other countries, organs from this source fail to meet the increasing demand.
The use of live donors for kidney and liver transplantation is also practised, but the purchase and sale of transplant organs from live donors are prohibited in many countries. The international organ trade has been recognized as a significant health policy issue in the international community.
This paper is a preliminary attempt to bring together the available information on the international organ The ethical complications of transparency. It aims to present a tentative global picture of the context and forms of the organ trade; the major organ-exporting and -importing countries; and the outcomes and consequences of commercial organ transplants.
Its purpose was to gather information on the international organ trade and transplant tourism, and to synthesize this into a tentative global picture using multiple research strategies. Using Reference Manager, the first search was conducted using two parameters: The abstracts were checked and, if judged relevant, the entire items were retrieved; their references were also consulted.
Academic articles containing information on the scope and trends of the international organ trade were obtained using the same search procedure. Because the paucity of scientific research was anticipated, media reports were identified as significant complementary resources.
Articles published in the past five years that were accessible in both English and Japanese were examined. For the purpose of this paper, an additional survey of media reports published up to 10 May was carried out. The material obtained using these methods was organized into a searchable database and systematically reviewed.
Results In total, documents — media materials, 51 journal articles and 15 other documents — were judged to be the most relevant. As anticipated, quantitative data was scarce.
However, several documents, including academic articles, conference papers and reports by health ministries and national transplant registries, were obtained for several countries.
Media reports were found to be useful in gaining information on the prevalence and forms of the international organ trade and as a source of data not accessible in academic journals. The major findings from these will be summarized below.
However, it is used in resolution WHA The international movement of potential recipients is often arranged or facilitated by intermediaries and health-care providers who arrange the travel and recruit donors.
The Internet has often been used to attract foreign patients. In Taiwan, China patients who underwent organ transplants in China were questioned by their Department of Health, and 69 reported that their transplants were facilitated by doctors.
Subsequently, the local authorities in Taiwan, China, have prohibited such activities. In some cases, live donors have reportedly been brought from the Republic of Moldova to the United States of America, or from Nepal to India.
More than illegal kidney transplants were performed at St. Augustine Hospital in South Africa in and ; most of the recipients came from Israel, while the donors were from eastern Europe and Brazil.
The police investigation in Brazil and South Africa revealed the existence of an international organ trafficking syndicate.
Unlike cell tissues, no confirmed report on transplant organs being trafficked after their removal was found in this survey. The organ-exporting countries India was a commonly known organ-exporting country, where organs from local donors are regularly transplanted to foreigners through sale and purchase.
Although the number of foreign recipients seems to have decreased after the enactment of a law banning the organ trade the Human Organ Transplantation Act of10 the underground organ market is still existent and resurging in India.The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information Yosuke Shimazono a Introduction.
Organ transplantation is an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure and is widely practised around the world.
Most recently added records are displayed first. 1; Reporting guidelines on how to write a complete and transparent abstract for overviews of systematic reviews of health care interventions. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information Yosuke Shimazono a Introduction.
Organ transplantation is an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure and is widely practised around the world. The dynamic landscape of medical services keeps changing very often adding layers of complications to plethora of regulations by federal and industry specific regulatory bodies.
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