How to write a retrospective case series research

Types of Clinical Questions Clinical questions may be categorized as either background or foreground.

How to write a retrospective case series research

To assess the effects of IM training, a group experiment was conducted against 30 stroke patients. A total of 12 sessions of IM training, in minute sessions 3 times a week for 4 weeks, were provided to the experimental group, while the control group was educated during the same period with a bilateral training self-exercise program.

Case Report Namgung, Young, M. For each case subject, IM training was provided during 3 weeks, from January to February Evaluations were performed pre- and post-intervention in order to exam timing, attention and motor skills.

The timing function was improved in both cases since both showed reduced response time for all motor tasks of LFA.

In terms of attention, case 1 showed improvement of visual attention division, neglect and response Inhibition, and case 2 showed improvement of sustained attention. This study provides positive evidence that the Interactive Metronome training has positive power to facilitate several body functions such as timing, attention and motor control of children with ADHD, through two case studies.

The subject of study was a 26 years old woman with intellectual disabilities.

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This study is a single subject AB design. The baseline phase involved no intervention, but during the intervention phase, IM intervention was conducted.

Bilateral coordination and balance were measured by bilateral coordination, balance items in the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition.

The results of this study are as follows; first, timing was decreased in the intervention phase than in the baseline phase. Second, attention was improved in the intervention phase than in the baseline phase. Third, bilateral coordination was improved in the intervention phase than in the baseline phase.

how to write a retrospective case series research

Fourth, balance was increased in the intervention phase than in the baseline phase. This study showed that the IM intervention provided positive effects on attention, bilateral coordination and balance of the adult with intellectual disabilities.

The study was implemented from March to July However, there should be more researches with large number of subjects. Trujillo White paper presented at ISNR Nine adults, ages 60 — 80, completed 12 sessions of Interactive Metronome training over two months with a six week break period followed by the remaining six sessions for a total of 18 sessions.

Session length was 30 — 45 minutes, never exceeding repetitions per task. All participants were seated during training for safety precautions.

Gains on all outcome measures were achieved. This has significant meaning for adults who are at risk of falling and is a substantial outcome considering all participants were seated and only performed upper extremity tasks during training.

The Validation of the Interactive Metronome: This was done using a pilot population similar in age and physical status as active duty military but within a college setting. The pre-established protocols were pilot tested on two male and two female participants.

A case series (also known as a clinical series) is a type of medical research study that tracks subjects with a known exposure, such as patients who have received a similar treatment, or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome. Case Series and Case Reports: These consist either of collections of reports on the treatment of individual patients with the same condition, or of reports on a single patient. Case series/reports are used to illustrate an aspect of a condition, the treatment or the adverse reaction to treatment. Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights. Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the s.

Changes were observed and recorded using a variety of instruments. The results collected demonstrated positive results. Participants reported that they found the IM reassuring; especially at the end of the academic day. Keith Published in Journal of Research in Childhood Education A total of 86 students ranging in age from years of age from 1st through 5th grade classrooms at an inner-city charter school participated in a randomized, controlled study to examine the effect of IM training on mathematics achievement.

Students in the experimental group participated in 18 daily sessions of IM training 50 minutes each over a period of 4 weeks. Students in the control group participated in recess. As shown in several other IM studies, there was again an observed cross domain effect from sensorimotor synchronization training with IM i.

Students that received 18 daily sessions of IM training demonstrated significantly higher scores for mathematics achievement when compared to students who participated in recess. Forty eight children with mixed motor and cognitive diagnoses completed an average of 14 one-hour training sessions over an average of 8.

All three measures improved with statistical significance despite participants having no direct skill training. These results suggest an intimate relationship between cognition and motor skills that has potential therapeutic value. Most participants find it challenging, like a game, as opposed to critical, like feedback from a parent or therapist.

Psychological Research and Scientific Method -

Scientifically, these results are consistent with two particular studies recently published in neurorehabilitation journals.Many graduate students applying for their first postdoctoral positions underestimate the importance of the cover letter.

While it may be true that your awesomeness is beautifully outlined on your curriculum vitae, your cover letter often will dictate whether the busy principal investigator puts your application at the top of the heaping pile or into triage. The choices are case report, case series, case-control study, cohort study, and clinical trial.

You should also indicate whether the collection of data was retrospective or prospective. Next, indicate how the study group was assembled. The criteria for inclusion or exclusion should be explicitly stated. The Science Three-Level Hypothesized Explanation of the IM effect (McGrew, ).

Interactive Metronome ® (IM) is believed to improve the resolution and efficiency of an individual’s internal brain clock(s) and temporal turn, it is hypothesized that this results in more efficient brain connectivity, communication, and synchronization via increased integrity of the brains white.

I purchased this to replace my Retrospective 7 because I got a new camera which is bigger and it fits perfectly in the Retro I easily put a Canon 5d Mark III, mm f/ and a mm f/2 or 35mm f/2 depending on what I have on the camera at the time. Retrospective study designs are generally considered inferior to prospective study designs.

Therefore, a retrospective study design should never be used when a prospective design is feasible. Key words: research, respiratory care, research methodology, study design, retrospective, case control. If you want to do research based on records (ie., retrospective data - secondary data) first you make a protocol for your study.

you have to write your hypothesis, and based on that you decide.

Design of experiments - Wikipedia