Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol.
With base pair comparisons possible across the individuals sequenced, the estimate that any two humans are Paradoxically, the evidence of vast numbers of DNA base pairs at which humans differ also became known at this time. It is estimated currently that any two people will differ at approximately 3 million positions along their genomes.
Previous chapters have discussed the contributions of the social environment, behavior, psychological factors, physiological mechanisms, and genetic variation to health. These complex traits are multifaceted, and the goal is to tease apart the facets at different levels of organization in order to identify which of them directly modulate health.
Failing to distinguish these different facets, both in the aggregate and within each level of analysis, will compromise the ability to obtain a more fine-grained understanding of how the different aspects of these fundamental individual traits interact to influence health.
Sex is a classification based on biological differences—for example, differences between males and females rooted in their anatomy or physiology. By contrast, gender is a classification based on the social construction and maintenance of cultural distinctions between males and females.
Differences in the health of males and females often reflect the simultaneous influence of both sex and gender. Not only can gender relations influence the expression of biological traits, but also sex-associated biological characteristics can contribute to amplify gender differentials in health Krieger, The relative contributions of gender relations and sex-linked biology to health differences between males and females depend on the specific health outcome under consideration.
In other instances, gender relations account substantially for observed gender differentials for a given health outcome—for example Gender race class examining the higher prevalence of needle-stick injuries among female compared to male health care workers, which is in turn attributed to the gender segregation of the health care workforce.
The prevalence of HIV infection through needle-stick injury is higher among female health care workers because the majority of doctors are men, the majority of nurses and phlebotomists are women, and drawing blood is relegated to nurses and phlebotomists who are mostly women Ippolito et al.
In yet other instances, gender relations can act synergistically with sex-linked biology to produce a health outcome.
For example, the risk of hypospadias is higher among male infants born to women exposed to potential endocrine-disrupting agents at work.
In this example, maternal exposure to the endocrine-disrupting agent e. Once exposure occurs, the risk of the outcome is predicated on sex-linked biology and is different for women and men, as well as for female and male fetuses, because only women can be pregnant, and exposure can lead to the outcome hypospadias only among male fetuses all examples cited in Krieger, Finally, in some instances, sex-linked biology can be obscured by the influence of gender relations in producing health differentials between women and men.
Arber and colleagues demonstrated the presence of such bias in a randomized experimental study involving video-vignettes of a scripted consultation in which patients presented with standardized symptoms of CHD.
Women were asked fewer questions and received fewer diagnostic tests compared to men. Besides the behavior of health care providers, a number of other social processes are recognized as contributing to gender inequalities in health. At the macro or societal level, these include the gender segregation of the labor force alluded to above and gender discrimination.
Gender segregation of the workforce and gender discrimination together contribute to the persistence of the gender wage gap—that is the fact that women earn less than men in paid employment Reskin and Padavic, The gender wage gap in turn contributes to the feminization of poverty.
Women— particularly female heads of households—are over-represented among poor households in virtually every society. The adverse health effects of poverty see Chapter 2 of this report therefore fall disproportionately on women and their children.
Within households, gender relations also are characterized by the unequal division of labor e. The stresses associated with care giving, particularly providing care for ill spouses, have been linked to adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease Lee et al.
Men and women differ biologically because their primary reproductive hormones are different. Less well recognized are the sex differences in certain aspects of immune function that stem from the fact that women and men face different immune challenges.
Moreover, as is the case for many other mammalian species, other aspects of male and female biology also may differ because they have different roles in caring for offspring or function in different ecological niches, thus reducing parental competition.
For example, a brief stressor mimicking a burrow collapse results in a more pronounced long-term innate inflammatory response in female rats than in male rats exposed to the same stressor Hermes et al.
Given that females become aggressive during lactation and may likely suffer from wounding, selection would favor those who can mount an inflammatory response that is effective enough to enable them to survive at least long enough to wean their nursing pups. Given that males do not behave paternally in this species, a selection pressure at this juncture of the reproductive lifespan would not be as strong.
The central point is that sex differences in health and risk for disease are not simply minor correlates of differences in reproductive hormones.
They also result from deeply embedded highly coordinated physiological systems that have evolved to serve sex-specific functions. For example, women must have sufficient energy reserves to sustain the huge metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation.
Thus, it is not surprising to see sex differences in energy metabolism. Sex hormones have both genomic and nongenomic effects on the accumulation, distribution, and metabolism of adipose tissue, including the regulation of leptin Mayes and Watson, Leptin has long-term effects on the regulation of body weight, mediated through appetite, energy expenditure and body temperature.
Marked sex differences can be seen in levels of leptin, which in men but not women are associated with hypertension Sheu et al.Known for its clear and engaging writing, the bestselling Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class has been thoroughly updated to be fresher, more relevant, and more accessible to undergraduates.
The Eighth Edition retains the same use of sociological theory to tell the story of race and other socially constructed inequalities in the U.S.
and for examining . Collins later integrated these three views by examining a black political economy through the centering of black women's experiences and the use of a theoretical framework of intersectionality.
One could apply the intersectionality framework analysis to various areas where race, class, gender, sexuality and ability are affected by policies. TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods.
Related . Sell, buy or rent Race, Gender, Class, and Criminal Justice: Examining Barriers to Justice X, we buy used or new for best buyback price with FREE shipping and offer great deals for buyers. In the United States, those who become involved or interact with the criminal justice system often experience the system differently based on their race, class, and/or gender.
Examining Intersectionality: The Conflation of Race, Gender, and Class in Individual and Collective Identities.