We propose a new metric to rank journals, the J. Factor Journal Openness Indexbased on measures of openness rather than perceived rank or citation impact. Finally, the article calls for librarians and researchers in LIS to examine our scholarly literature and hold it to the principles and standards that we are asking of other disciplines.
Higher Order Instabilities Figure 3: Schematic of counter-rotating wavy vortices. Lueptow Increasing the Taylor number above the critical Taylor number for the case of the inner cylinder rotating and the outer cylinder fixed results in higher order instabilities in which the vortical structure is retained, but the vortices are modified.
The first transition is to wavy vortex flow, which is characterized by azimuthal waviness of the vortices as shown schematically in Figure 3. The Taylor number for the transition from axisymmetric toroidal Taylor vortices to wavy vortices is not firmly established.
The number of azimuthal waves depends on experimental conditions, though it is usually less than 6 or 7 Coles Regions of upward downward deformation of a wavy vortex correspond to regions of upward downward axial flow. As a result, for wavy vortex flow streamtubes are destroyed leading to chaotic particle paths with intra-vortex mixing, as shown in Figure 4.
By contrast, the axisymmetric cellular structure of non-wavy Taylor vortex flow results in a set of nested streamtubes KAM tori for each vortex with a dividing invariant streamsurface between adjacent vortices.
The only mechanism for transport within a vortex or between vortices is molecular diffusion. Lueptow At higher Taylor numbers, the wavy vortices transition to modulated wavy vortices, evident upon flow visualization as a slight flattening of the outflow boundary.
The transition is most easily detected from spectral analysis of a velocity or reflected light measurement at a single point in the flow.
Wavy vortex flow has a single peak at a frequency related to the passage of the azimuthal wave; modulated wavy vortex flow introduces a second spectral peak at a lower frequency related to the modulation. At still higher Taylor numbers, the waviness gives way to turbulencewhich raises the spectral level at all frequencies.
The vortices become axisymmetric, but the flow is turbulent at small scales. At high enough Taylor number, the turbulent vortices disappear, and the flow is fully turbulent. The rotation of the outer cylinder in addition to the inner cylinder results in a variety of other flow regimes for long cylinders: The addition of an axial flow in the annulus or a radial flow through porous cylinders alters the critical Taylor number as well as the wavelength and structure of the vortices.
Likewise, the flow is altered by oscillating the inner or outer cylinder axially or azimuthally or by varying the gap between the inner and outer cylinders.
The vortical structure is very robust--Taylor vortices can occur in other geometries including between concentric cones and spheres.
For example, vortices occur at the equator between an inner rotating sphere and a concentric, stationary outer sphere Figure 5. Swinney, "Flow regimes in a circular Couette system with independently rotating cylinders," J.
Mallock, "Determination of the viscosity of water," Proc. Press, Berkeley,pp. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. Press, Cambridge, England,pp.
Taylor, "Stability of a viscous liquid contained between two rotating cylinders," Philos. Internal references John Guckenheimer Bifurcation. Scholarpedia2 6: Philip Holmes and Eric T. Paul Manneville and Yves Pomeau Transition to turbulence.Over 15, copies downloaded! This is a quick and easy way to learn the basic philosophy and theology of Saint Thomas Aquinas.
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🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Oct 21, · Taylor-Couette flow is the name of a fluid flow and the related instability that occurs in the annulus between differentially rotating concentric cylinders, most often with the inner cylinder rotating and the outer cylinder fixed, when the rotation rate exceeds a critical value.
The stable base flow was used in the 19th century to test the fundamental Newtonian stress assumption in the Navier.
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