A thicket of wild cannabis in IslamabadPakistan. Cannabis is an annualdioeciousflowering herb.
Recommendations made on issues outside the scope of this report, such as drug law and scheduling decisions, are not included here. The following reports were reviewed: Health Council of the Netherlands.
Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. National Institutes of Health. Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana. A Health Perspective and Research Agenda. It is available on the Internet at: Based on those findings, the committee concluded that there was insufficient evidence to justify the medical use of marijuana.
AMA House of Delegates Adequate and well-controlled studies of smoked marijuana should be conducted in patients who have serious conditions for which preclinical, anecdotal, or controlled evidence suggests possible efficacy, including AIDS wasting syndrome, severe acute or delayed emesis induced by chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, dystonia, and neuropathic pain.
British Medical Association Research on the clinical indications for medical prescription of cannabinoids should be undertaken. For all indications listed below antiemetics, pain, epilepsy, glaucoma, asthma, immunological effects, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and other spastic disorders further research is required to establish suitable methods of administration, optimal dosage regimens, and routes of administration.
A central registry should be kept of patients prescribed cannabinoids so that the effects can be followed up over the long term. National Institutes of Health For at least some potential indications, marijuana looks promising enough to recommend that new controlled studies be done.
The indications in which varying levels of interest were expressed are the following: Until studies are done using scientifically acceptable clinical trial design and subjected to appropriate statistical analysis, the question concerning the therapeutic utility of marijuana will likely remain largely un-answered.
To the extent that the NIH can facilitate the development of a scientifically rigorous and relevant database, the NIH should do so. World Health Organization Therapeutic uses of cannabinoids warrant further basic pharmacological and experimental investigation and clinical research into their effectiveness.
More research is needed on the basic neuropharmacology of THC and other cannabinoids so that better therapeutic agents can be found. AMA House of Delegates Controlled evidence does not support the view that THC or smoked marijuana offers clinically effective analgesia without causing significant adverse events when used alone.
Preclinical evidence suggests that cannabinoids can potentiate opioid analgesia and that cannabinoids may be effective in animal models of neuropathic pain.
Further research into the use of cannabinoids in neuropathic pain is warranted. British Medical Association The prescription of nabilone, THC, and other cannabinoids should be permitted for patients with intractable pain. Further research is needed into the potential of cannabidiol as an analgesic in chronic, terminal, and postoperative pain.
National Institutes of Health Evaluation of cannabinoids in the management of neuropathic pain, including HIV-associated neuropathy, should be undertaken. World Health Organization No recommendations made, although the report notes that some newly synthesized cannabinoids are extremely potent analgesics; however, separation of the analgesia and side effects remains to be demonstrated.
AMA House of Delegates THC and smoked marijuana are considerably less effective than currently available therapies to treat acute nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, although certain patients still do not respond adequately to conventional therapy.
Research involving THC and smoked marijuana should focus on their possible use in treating delayed nausea and vomiting and their adjunctive use in patients who respond inadequately to 5-HT3 antagonists.
The use of an inhaled substance has the potential to benefit ambulatory patients who are experiencing the onset of nausea and are thus unable to take oral medications. Further research is needed in other cases, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting.
National Institutes of Health Inhaled marijuana merits testing in controlled, double-blind, randomized trials for nausea and vomiting. World Health Organization More basic research on the central and peripheral mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal function may improve the ability to alleviate nausea and emesis.
The ability of patients who smoke marijuana to titrate their dosage according to need and the lack of highly effective, inexpensive options to treat this debilitating disease create the conditions warranting formal clinical trials of smoked marijuana as an appetite stimulant in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.
Investigations should be designed to assess long-term effects on immunology status, the rate of viral replication, and clinical outcomes in participants as well as weight gain. In therapeutic trials of cachexia, research should attempt to separate out the effect of marijuana on mood versus appetite.
Some questions need to be answered in the studies: World Health Organization No specific recommendations are made, although the report notes that dronabinol is an effective appetite stimulant for patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.Readers recently joined in a lively debate about the use of medicinal marijuana.
In Clinical Decisions, 1 an interactive feature in which experts discuss a controversial topic and readers vote and. D oes smoking marijuana count as a sin?
I’m in beautiful Colorado and yes the natives are toking. As you know, marijuana is becoming legal in certain states. So once again, the ethics of marijuana are back on the table.
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Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States.
As of year-end , 21 states and the District of Columbia had policies recognizing the medicinal value of marijuana and providing a legal defense for patients who used marijuana under the recommendation of a physician.
In November the states of Colorado and Washington approved ballot initiatives that legalized marijuana for recreational use under state law.