This is a listing of the regulations that may be proposed for adoption or amendment within that calendar year. Regulatory Agenda Division of Air Resources 6 NYCRR Part Permits and Registrations, Part will be amended to make certain minor wording changes, correct typographical errors, and other minor corrections to ensure consistent implementation across regions.
Etymology[ edit ] The word miasma comes from ancient Greek and means "pollution". Miasma was considered to be a poisonous vapor or mist filled with particles from decomposed matter miasmata that caused illnesses.
The miasmatic position was that diseases were the product of environmental factors such as contaminated water, foul air, and poor hygienic conditions. Such infection was not passed between individuals but would affect individuals within the locale that gave rise to such vapors.
It was identifiable by its foul smell.
It was also initially believed that miasmas were propagated through worms from ulcers within those affected by a plague. The Indians invented paan, a gambir paste, that was believed to help prevent miasma; it was considered as the first antimiasmatic application. This gambir tree is found in Southern India and Sri Lanka.
For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mist from marshes and, mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy.
In the s, miasma was used to explain the spread of cholera in London and in Parispartly justifying Haussmann's later renovation of the French capital. The disease was said to be preventable by cleansing and scouring of the body and items. William Farrthe assistant commissioner for the London census, was an important supporter of the miasma theory.
He believed that cholera was transmitted by air, and that there was a deadly concentration of miasmata near the River Thames ' banks.
Such a belief was in part accepted because of the general lack of air quality in urbanized areas. This slowed the response to the major outbreaks in the Soho district of London and other areas.
The Crimean War nurse Florence Nightingale —    was a proponent of the theory and worked to make hospitals sanitary and fresh-smelling. It was stated in 'Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes' that Nightingale would "keep the air [the patient] breathes as pure as the external air.
The presence of fog strongly indicated the presence of miasma. The miasmas behaved like smoke or mist, blown with air currents, wafted by winds. It did not simply travel on air, it changed the air through which it propagated.
The atmosphere was infected by miasma, as diseased people were. China[ edit ] In China, miasma Chinese: Miasma has different names in Chinese culture. Most of the explanations of miasma refer to it as a kind of sickness, or poison gas.
The ancient Chinese thought that miasma was related to the environment of parts of Southern China. The miasma was thought to be caused by the heat, moisture and the dead air in the Southern Chinese mountains. In descriptions by ancient travelers, soldiers, or local officials most of them are men of letters of the phenomenon of miasma, fog, haze, dust, gas, or poison geological gassing were always mentioned.
The miasma was thought to have caused a lot of diseases such as the cold, influenza, heat strokes, malariaor dysentery.
In the medical history of China, malaria had been referred to by different names in different dynasty periods. Poisoning and psittacosis were also called miasma in ancient China because they did not accurately understand the cause of disease.
He thought that miasma in Southern China was similar to typhoid fever in Northern China.
The so-called Camp Fire in Northern California in many ways has become the worst wildfire the history of a state whose topography and climate have. The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. Air Pollution and Community Health A Critical Review and Data Sourcebook Frederick W. Lipfert Air pollution has affected community health since the advent of the industrial age and arguably since the discovery of fire.
However, in his opinion, miasma was different from malaria and dysentery. In his book, he discussed dysentery in another chapter, and malaria in a single chapter.
He also claimed that miasma caused various diseases, so he suggested that one should find apt and specific ways to resolve problems.
First, before the Western Jin Dynastythe concept of miasma was gradually forming; at least, in the Eastern Han Dynastythere was no description of miasma. During the Eastern Jin, large numbers of northern people moved south, and miasma was then recognized by men of letters and nobility.General Health Risks: Air Pollution Description Outdoor air pollution is a mix of chemicals, particulate matter, and biological materials that react with each other to form tiny hazardous particles.
Air pollution occurs when the air contains pollutants such as gases, fumes and dust in harmful amounts. Air pollution can be harmful to the health of humans and animals if left unchecked. Prior to industrialization, the ecosystem was able to take care of any discrepancies in the air through wind.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO 2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace heartoftexashop.com current concentration is about % ( ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of ppm.
With both fires nearly fully-contained, the worst is finally over. Regulatory Agenda DEC January Regulatory Agenda, 3-Year Rule Review and 5-Year Rule Review Introduction.
Each year, pursuant to SAPA, the Department publishes a Regulatory Agenda in the State Register and on its website. The origin of air pollution goes back to the discovery of fire. Since then, human activities have been contributing towards air pollution.
The combustion processes from mobile and stationary sources have generated significant amount of air pollution.